"Menginspirasi anda semua"

Sabtu, 13 September 2014

Theories entry of Islam into Indonesia

       Theories entry of Islam into Indonesia-Islam came to Indonesia when Hindu and Buddhist influence is still strong. At that time, the Majapahit still control most of what is now Indonesia. Indonesian people acquainted with the religion and culture of Islam through the trade channel, the same as when acquainted with the Hindu and Buddhist religions. Through commercial activities, the Indonesian people who are familiar with the Hindu-Buddhist gradually familiar with the teachings of Islam. The spread of Islam was first occurred in coastal communities are more open to foreign culture. After that, then Islam spread to the countryside and mountains through economic activity, education, and politics. 
Islamic religion eventually spread to Southeast Asia and East Asia. This happens due to the increasingly crowded trade route, with the opening of the airport Hurmuz in the Persian Gulf. Indonesia as one of the areas that has many ports, is one of the objectives of the foreign merchants to obtain the merchandise sold in the international market, especially the spices. 

The process of introduction of Islam to Indonesia does not take place in a revolutionary, fast, and single, but evolved gradually, and very diverse. According to historians, the theories about the coming of Islam to Indonesia can be divided into: 

a. theory Mecca 
Mecca theory says that the arrival of Islam to Indonesia are directly from Mecca or Arabic. This process takes place in the first century Hijri or 7th century AD figure who introduced this theory is Haji Abdul Karim Amrullah or Hamka, one of the scholars at the same time Indonesian writers. Hamka express his opinion in 1958, when the oration delivered on the anniversary of the State Islamic University (PTIN) in Yogyakarta. He rejects the whole notion of Western scholars who argued that Islam came to Indonesia indirectly from Arabic. Materials argument is used as reference material source HAMKA local Indonesian and Arabic sources. According to him, the initial motivation of the arrival of the Arabs not based on economic values​​, but rather is driven by the motivation to spread the spirit of Islam. In view of Hamka, the trade route between Indonesia and Arabic has been going on long before the chronicle BC. 
In this case, the theory is a refutation of the theory HAMKA Gujarat are many weaknesses. He is even suspicious of the prejudices of Western Orientalist writers who tend to discredit Islam in Indonesia. Western writer, Hamka said, doing a very systematic effort to eliminate the Malay lands beliefs about intimate spiritual relationship between them and the Arab lands as the primary source of Islam in Indonesia in studying religion. In view of HAMKA, Muslims in Indonesian Islam of the people get the first (the Arabs), instead of just trade. HAMKA view is similar to the Sufi theory expressed by AH Johns who said that the musafirlah (the nomads) who has been doing initial Islamisation in Indonesia. Sufis usually wander from one place to another to set up a collection or university institutes. 

b. theory Gujarat 
Gujarat theory says that the coming of Islam to Indonesia from Gujarat in the 7th century H or 13th century AD Gujarat is located in any part of western India, berdekaran the Arabian Sea. People who socialize this theory is mostly scholars from the Netherlands. The first scholar who proposed this theory is J. Pijnapel of the University of Leiden in the 19th century According to him, the Arabs bermahzab Syafei have settled in Gujarat and Malabar since the beginning Hijriyyah (century 
7 AD), but the spread of Islam to Indonesia according Pijnapel of the Arabs is not direct, but Gujarat traders who had converted to Islam and trade in the eastern world, including Indonesia. In a further development, Pijnapel theory is justified and propagated by a leading Dutch orientalist, Snouck Hurgronje. According to him, Islam was first developed in the port cities of the Indian subcontinent. The people of Gujarat had earlier opened trade relations with Indonesia than with Arab traders. In view of Hurgronje, the arrival of the Arabs happen in the next period. The Arabs who come are mostly descendants of the Prophet Muhammad who use the title "sharif" or "sharif" in front of his name. 
Theory Gujarat then also developed by JP Moquetta (1912) who argue with tombstones Sultan Malik al-Saleh, who died on the 17th of Dhu al-Hijjah 831 AH / 1297 AD in Pasai, Aceh. According to him, gravestones and tombs in Pasai Maulanan Malik Ibrahim who died in 1419 in Gresik, East Java, has the same form as contained in Kambay headstone, Gujarat. Moquetta finally concluded that the tombstone is imported from Gujarat, or at least made ​​by a Gujarat or the Indonesian people who have learned calligraphy typical Gujarat. Another reason is that in the common schools of Syafei profess the Muslim community in Gujarat and Indonesia. 

c. theory of Persia 
Persian theory says that the coming of Islam to Indonesia comes from the Persian or Parsi (now Iran). Originator of this theory is Hoesein Djajadiningrat, historians from Banten. In giving his argument, Hoesein more focused analysis on the cultural similarities and traditions that developed between the Parsi community and Indonesia. Traditions include: a tradition of celebrating the 10th of Muharram or Asyuro as Shiite holy day for the death of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, as it developed in the tradition of the ark in Pariaman in West Sumatra. The term "ark" (coffin) is taken from the Arabic language are translated through Persia. Another tradition is the mystical teachings of the many similarities, such as between the teachings of Sheikh Siti jenar of Central Java with the teachings of Al-Hallaj Sufi from Persia. Not coincidentally, both were sentenced to death by the local authorities because its teachings are considered contrary to the monotheism of Islam (apostate) and political stability and social harm. Another reason put forward Hoesein Moquetta line with the theory, that there are similarities in the art of calligraphy carving gravestones used at the beginning of Islamic graves in Indonesia. Another similarity is that Indonesian Muslims embrace schools of Syafei, as-many Muslims in Iran. 

d. theory of China 
Chinese theory says that the coming of Islam to Indonesia (especially Java) is derived from the Chinese Diaspora. The Chinese have been in touch with the people of Indonesia long before Islam known in Indonesia. In the Hindu-Buddhist, ethnic Chinese or Chinese have mingled with the Indonesian-primarily through trade contacts. In fact, Islam has arrived in China in the 7th century AD, a period in which religion flourished. Sumanto Al Qurtuby in his book Flow Chinese-Javanese-Islamic states, according to the chronicles of the Tang Dynasty (618-960) in the area of ​​Cantonese, Zhang-zhao, Quanzhou, southern China coastal dams, there have been a number of Islamic settlement. 
The Chinese theory when viewed from some foreign sources (chronic) and local (and chronicle the saga), is acceptable. In fact, according to some sources lokat is written that the first king of Islam in Java, namely Raden Patah of Demak Bintoro, is of Chinese descent. His mother mentioned are from Campa, southern China (now including Vietnam). Based hist and Hikayat Hasanuddin Banten, the name and title of the kings and their ancestors Demak written using Chinese terms, such as "Check Ko Po", "Jin Bun", "Check Tire Cun", "Cun CEH", and "Cu-cu ". Names like "Munggul" and "Moechoel" is interpreted in other words from the Mongols, an area in northern China bordering Russia. 

Other evidence is the old mosques valuable Chinese architecture established by the Chinese community in various places, especially in Java. Important port throughout the 15th century such as Gresik, for example, according to Chinese records, first occupied by Chinese sailors and traders. All of the above theory each has its own advantages and disadvantages. There is no absolute certainty and clear in each of these theories. Borrowing the term Azyumardi Azra, the arrival of the real Islam to Indonesia came in complexity; meaning does not come from one place, the role of a single group, and not at the same time.
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